Founded in 1768 on the site of the ancient town of Nirun-Kot by Ghulam Shah Kalhora, the saintly ruler of Sindh, it was named after the prophet Mohammed’s son-in-law, Ali, also known as Haidar. It remained the capital of sindh under the Talpur rulers who succeeded the Kalhoras till 1843 when, after the nearby battles of Miani and Dabo, it surrendered to the British, the capital was then transferred to Karachi.
Incorporated as a municipality in 1853, it is an important commercial and industrial center. Its economic activities include textile, sugar, cement, and hosiery mills, manufacturing of glass, soap, ice, paper, and plastics. There are hide tanneries and sawmills. Ornamented silks, silver-work, gold-work and lacquer ware are also some of its exclusive products. Noteworthy antiquities include the tombs of the Kalhora and Talpur ruler, palaces of the former amirs of Sindh. Newly developed settlements and industrial estates surround the congested old city area. An noteworthy characteristic of this city is, badgirs (wind-catchers) fixed to housetops to catch sea breezes during the hot summer season. A hospital, municipal gardens, zoo, sports stadium, and several literary societies are in the city. The University of Sindh with 32 affiliated colleges was founded in 1947 in Karachi and moved to Hyderabad in 1951, where it lies across the Indus. Other education needs are served by numerous government colleges, the Liaquat Medical College and specialized vocational institutions.
remained the capital of the emirate of Sindh until the British general Sir Charles James Napier conquered Sindh in 1843. From 1947 to 1955 Hyderabad was the capital of Sindh Province, the new capital was shifted to Hyderabad. In 1766 the Kalhora ruler constructed a fort half a square km in area and still stands today. In 1843 the British arrived and defeated the Talpurs, Completing their Conquest of Sindh.
Famous for its cool breeze and balmy nights, and known for its Bombay Bakery Cakes, Its delicate bangles and the paagalkhana called Giddu Bandar, Hyderabad is Sindh’s Second largest city, a city its inhabitants claim is the most beautiful in the world, Its spacious houses are known for their manghan, roshandans or ventilators and it is also known as “mangham jo shahar.”
‘The heart of Sindh‘ as many call Hyderabad, was the former capital of Sindh, ruled by the Kalhoras and Talpurs from the Pacca Qila until the British conquest.
A nerve center of Sindh nationalist and literary movements, the city is now divided along on Sindhi-Mohajir lines to the extent that the warning ethnic groups even have different hospitals and in many cases, even their places of worship and graveyards are divided. The original old city, now dominated by the mohajirs, seems besieged by the surrounding Sindhi suburbs. At one time a hub of economic, educational and cultural activities, a breeding ground of academicians, philanthropists, writers, lawyers, politicians, journalists, actors and actresses, Hyderabad also had its industrialists, trade unionists, political activists, bureaucrats, bankers and diplomats who made a significant contribution to sub continental society. But this gracious city now seems to be slowly dying, although it still produces over a couple of dozen major and minor newspapers in both Sindhi and Urdu.
Hyderabad, once the capital of Sindh and now the eighth largest city of Pakistan, is one of the oldest cities of the sub-continent. Its history dates back to pre-Islamic times, when Ganjo Taken (barren hill), a nearby hilly tract, was used as a place of worship. The city traces its early history to Neroon, a Hindu ruler of the area from whom the city derived its previous name, “Neroon Kot”.